Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Market 2018 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2023
Published On: August 2018
 
Report ID:294016
 
 
Pages: 137




Cosmetic Raw Materials refers to the chemicals and materials used in the manufacturing of cosmetics.

Cosmetics are composed of a number of raw materials that are processed together to produce a final product.

The exact ingredients differ among products, but the types of raw materials tend to be the same.

These different types include active ingredients, aesthetic additions, and materials that influence product use. Diluents, stabilizers, and adjustment agents are also typical raw materials for cosmetics, as are ingredients that assist ease of production and increase marketing value.

Scope of the Report:

This report focuses on the Cosmetic Raw Materials in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.

First, fierce competition exists in cosmetic raw material industry. However, the major market is occupied by the giant transnational corporations like Evonik, Ashland and BASF. Consequently, it would be hard for small companies to survived and get high profit in this market. Globally, giant manufactures mainly distribute in United States and Europe. As North America and Europe are the largest consumers of cosmetics and other personal care goods, big cosmetic manufacturers are highly concentrated in these areas, which result in the highly developed market of cosmetic raw materials in this market.

Second, for the giant transnational corporations, their production bases are located in many areas, which are usually located near the end market. Clariant has manufacture sites in Germany, Brazil and China, and BASF has manufacture sites in Germany and India. For example, multinational consumer goods companies like L'Oréal, Kanebo and Unilever continue to pursue opportunities in fast-growing Latin American, Eastern European and Asian markets. Increasingly, these companies are seeking cosmetic chemical suppliers with production capabilities in these regions or the ability to guarantee supply on demand via local inventories.

Third, all manufactures in the world are committed to the improvement of product. As the innovation of downstream market is changing fast, cosmetic raw material market has been in fast innovation, too. For the passing years, many function ingredients are invented to rectify the physical standard of human, especially female. Cosmeceuticals—cosmetics with pharmaceutical properties—are playing an increasingly important role in the personal care industry, especially in Europe. Now cosmeceuticals are produced by many cosmetic raw materials manufacturers to sell to skin care industry. It is well recognized that manufacturers with strong research and innovation ability can survive in cosmetic and cosmetic raw material industry.

The worldwide market for Cosmetic Raw Materials is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly xx% over the next five years, will reach xx million US$ in 2023, from xx million US$ in 2017, according to a new GIR (Global Info Research) study.

Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers

BASF

Evonik

Givaudan

Dow

Firmenich

International Flavors & Fragrances

Nippon Seiki

AkzoNobel

Solvay

Lonza

Croda

Lubrizol

AAK Personal Care

Eastman

Symrise

Kao

Ashland

Innospecinc

Stepan

DSM

Seppic

Jarchem

Clariant

Galaxy Surfactants

Follower's Song

Tinci Materials

Zhejiang Zanyu

Guangzhou DX Chemical

Shanghai Delta Industry

Guangzhou Startec

Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers

North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)

Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)

Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.)

Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

Market Segment by Type, covers

Active Ingredients

Aesthetic Materials

Surfactants And Solvents

Synthetic

Natural

Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into

Skin Care

Makeup

Perfume

Sunscreen

Other

There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the global Cosmetic Raw Materials market.

Chapter 1, to describe Cosmetic Raw Materials Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;

Chapter 2, to analyze the top manufacturers of Cosmetic Raw Materials, with sales, revenue, and price of Cosmetic Raw Materials, in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;

Chapter 4, to show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Cosmetic Raw Materials, for each region, from 2013 to 2018;

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to analyze the market by countries, by type, by application and by manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;

Chapter 10 and 11, to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2013 to 2018;

Chapter 12, Cosmetic Raw Materials market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2018 to 2023;

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Cosmetic Raw Materials sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source

Table of Contents

1 Market Overview

1.1 Cosmetic Raw Materials Introduction

1.2 Market Analysis by Type

1.2.1 Active Ingredients

1.2.2 Aesthetic Materials

1.2.3 Surfactants And Solvents

1.2.4 Synthetic

1.2.5 Natural

1.3 Market Analysis by Applications

1.3.1 Skin Care

1.3.2 Makeup

1.3.3 Perfume

1.3.4 Sunscreen

1.3.5 Other

1.4 Market Analysis by Regions

1.4.1 North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)

1.4.1.1 United States Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.1.2 Canada Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.1.3 Mexico Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.2 Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy)

1.4.2.1 Germany Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.2.2 France Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.2.3 UK Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.2.4 Russia Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.2.5 Italy Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.3 Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)

1.4.3.1 China Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.3.2 Japan Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.3.3 Korea Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.3.4 India Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.3.5 Southeast Asia Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.4 South America, Middle East and Africa

1.4.4.1 Brazil Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.4.2 Egypt Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.4.3 Saudi Arabia Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.4.4 South Africa Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.4.4.5 Nigeria Market States and Outlook (2013-2023)

1.5 Market Dynamics

1.5.1 Market Opportunities

1.5.2 Market Risk

1.5.3 Market Driving Force

2 Manufacturers Profiles

2.1 BASF

2.1.1 Business Overview

2.1.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.1.2.1 Product A

2.1.2.2 Product B

2.1.3 BASF Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.2 Evonik

2.2.1 Business Overview

2.2.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.2.2.1 Product A

2.2.2.2 Product B

2.2.3 Evonik Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.3 Givaudan

2.3.1 Business Overview

2.3.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.3.2.1 Product A

2.3.2.2 Product B

2.3.3 Givaudan Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.4 Dow

2.4.1 Business Overview

2.4.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.4.2.1 Product A

2.4.2.2 Product B

2.4.3 Dow Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.5 Firmenich

2.5.1 Business Overview

2.5.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.5.2.1 Product A

2.5.2.2 Product B

2.5.3 Firmenich Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.6 International Flavors & Fragrances

2.6.1 Business Overview

2.6.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.6.2.1 Product A

2.6.2.2 Product B

2.6.3 International Flavors & Fragrances Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.7 Nippon Seiki

2.7.1 Business Overview

2.7.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.7.2.1 Product A

2.7.2.2 Product B

2.7.3 Nippon Seiki Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.8 AkzoNobel

2.8.1 Business Overview

2.8.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.8.2.1 Product A

2.8.2.2 Product B

2.8.3 AkzoNobel Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.9 Solvay

2.9.1 Business Overview

2.9.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.9.2.1 Product A

2.9.2.2 Product B

2.9.3 Solvay Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.10 Lonza

2.10.1 Business Overview

2.10.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.10.2.1 Product A

2.10.2.2 Product B

2.10.3 Lonza Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.11 Croda

2.11.1 Business Overview

2.11.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.11.2.1 Product A

2.11.2.2 Product B

2.11.3 Croda Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.12 Lubrizol

2.12.1 Business Overview

2.12.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.12.2.1 Product A

2.12.2.2 Product B

2.12.3 Lubrizol Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.13 AAK Personal Care

2.13.1 Business Overview

2.13.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.13.2.1 Product A

2.13.2.2 Product B

2.13.3 AAK Personal Care Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.14 Eastman

2.14.1 Business Overview

2.14.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.14.2.1 Product A

2.14.2.2 Product B

2.14.3 Eastman Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.15 Symrise

2.15.1 Business Overview

2.15.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.15.2.1 Product A

2.15.2.2 Product B

2.15.3 Symrise Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.16 Kao

2.16.1 Business Overview

2.16.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.16.2.1 Product A

2.16.2.2 Product B

2.16.3 Kao Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.17 Ashland

2.17.1 Business Overview

2.17.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.17.2.1 Product A

2.17.2.2 Product B

2.17.3 Ashland Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.18 Innospecinc

2.18.1 Business Overview

2.18.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.18.2.1 Product A

2.18.2.2 Product B

2.18.3 Innospecinc Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.19 Stepan

2.19.1 Business Overview

2.19.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.19.2.1 Product A

2.19.2.2 Product B

2.19.3 Stepan Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.20 DSM

2.20.1 Business Overview

2.20.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.20.2.1 Product A

2.20.2.2 Product B

2.20.3 DSM Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.21 Seppic

2.21.1 Business Overview

2.2.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.21.2.1 Product A

2.21.2.2 Product B

2.21.3 Seppic Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.22 Jarchem

2.22.1 Business Overview

2.22.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.22.2.1 Product A

2.22.2.2 Product B

2.22.3 Jarchem Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.23 Clariant

2.23.1 Business Overview

2.23.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.23.2.1 Product A

2.23.2.2 Product B

2.23.3 Clariant Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.24 Galaxy Surfactants

2.24.1 Business Overview

2.24.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.24.2.1 Product A

2.24.2.2 Product B

2.24.3 Galaxy Surfactants Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.25 Follower's Song

2.25.1 Business Overview

2.25.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.25.2.1 Product A

2.25.2.2 Product B

2.25.3 Follower's Song Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.26 Tinci Materials

2.26.1 Business Overview

2.26.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.26.2.1 Product A

2.26.2.2 Product B

2.26.3 Tinci Materials Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.27 Zhejiang Zanyu

2.27.1 Business Overview

2.27.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.27.2.1 Product A

2.27.2.2 Product B

2.27.3 Zhejiang Zanyu Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.28 Guangzhou DX Chemical

2.28.1 Business Overview

2.28.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.28.2.1 Product A

2.28.2.2 Product B

2.28.3 Guangzhou DX Chemical Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.29 Shanghai Delta Industry

2.29.1 Business Overview

2.29.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.29.2.1 Product A

2.29.2.2 Product B

2.29.3 Shanghai Delta Industry Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

2.30 Guangzhou Startec

2.30.1 Business Overview

2.30.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Type and Applications

2.30.2.1 Product A

2.30.2.2 Product B

2.30.3 Guangzhou Startec Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Price, Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2016-2017)

3 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue, Market Share and Competition by Manufacturer (2016-2017)

3.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Market Share by Manufacturer (2016-2017)

3.2 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Revenue and Market Share by Manufacturer (2016-2017)

3.3 Market Concentration Rate

3.3.1 Top 3 Cosmetic Raw Materials Manufacturer Market Share in 2017

3.3.2 Top 6 Cosmetic Raw Materials Manufacturer Market Share in 2017

3.4 Market Competition Trend

4 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Analysis by Regions

4.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Regions

4.1.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Market Share by Regions (2013-2018)

4.1.2 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2013-2018)

4.2 North America Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

4.3 Europe Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

4.4 Asia-Pacific Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

4.5 South America Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

4.6 Middle East and Africa Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

5 North America Cosmetic Raw Materials by Countries

5.1 North America Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries

5.1.1 North America Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

5.1.2 North America Cosmetic Raw Materials Revenue and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

5.2 United States Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

5.3 Canada Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

5.4 Mexico Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

6 Europe Cosmetic Raw Materials by Countries

6.1 Europe Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries

6.1.1 Europe Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

6.1.2 Europe Cosmetic Raw Materials Revenue and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

6.2 Germany Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

6.3 UK Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

6.4 France Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

6.5 Russia Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

6.6 Italy Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

7 Asia-Pacific Cosmetic Raw Materials by Countries

7.1 Asia-Pacific Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries

7.1.1 Asia-Pacific Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

7.1.2 Asia-Pacific Cosmetic Raw Materials Revenue and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

7.2 China Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

7.3 Japan Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

7.4 Korea Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

7.5 India Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

7.6 Southeast Asia Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

8 South America Cosmetic Raw Materials by Countries

8.1 South America Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries

8.1.1 South America Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

8.1.2 South America Cosmetic Raw Materials Revenue and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

8.2 Brazil Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

8.3 Argentina Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

8.4 Colombia Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

9 Middle East and Africa Cosmetic Raw Materials by Countries

9.1 Middle East and Africa Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Countries

9.1.1 Middle East and Africa Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

9.1.2 Middle East and Africa Cosmetic Raw Materials Revenue and Market Share by Countries (2013-2018)

9.2 Saudi Arabia Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

9.3 UAE Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

9.4 Egypt Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

9.5 Nigeria Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

9.6 South Africa Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Growth Rate (2013-2018)

10 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Segment by Type

10.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue and Market Share by Type (2013-2018)

10.1.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales and Market Share by Type (2013-2018)

10.1.2 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Revenue and Market Share by Type (2013-2018)

10.2 Active Ingredients Sales Growth and Price

10.2.1 Global Active Ingredients Sales Growth (2013-2018)

10.2.2 Global Active Ingredients Price (2013-2018)

10.3 Aesthetic Materials Sales Growth and Price

10.3.1 Global Aesthetic Materials Sales Growth (2013-2018)

10.3.2 Global Aesthetic Materials Price (2013-2018)

10.4 Surfactants And Solvents Sales Growth and Price

10.4.1 Global Surfactants And Solvents Sales Growth (2013-2018)

10.4.2 Global Surfactants And Solvents Price (2013-2018)

10.5 Synthetic Sales Growth and Price

10.5.1 Global Synthetic Sales Growth (2013-2018)

10.5.2 Global Synthetic Price (2013-2018)

10.6 Natural Sales Growth and Price

10.6.1 Global Natural Sales Growth (2013-2018)

10.6.2 Global Natural Price (2013-2018)

11 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Segment by Application

11.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales Market Share by Application (2013-2018)

11.2 Skin Care Sales Growth (2013-2018)

11.3 Makeup Sales Growth (2013-2018)

11.4 Perfume Sales Growth (2013-2018)

11.5 Sunscreen Sales Growth (2013-2018)

11.6 Other Sales Growth (2013-2018)

12 Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast (2018-2023)

12.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate (2018-2023)

12.2 Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast by Regions (2018-2023)

12.2.1 North America Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast (2018-2023)

12.2.2 Europe Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast (2018-2023)

12.2.3 Asia-Pacific Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast (2018-2023)

12.2.4 South America Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast (2018-2023)

12.2.5 Middle East and Africa Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast (2018-2023)

12.3 Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast by Type (2018-2023)

12.3.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales Forecast by Type (2018-2023)

12.3.2 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Share Forecast by Type (2018-2023)

12.4 Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Forecast by Application (2018-2023)

12.4.1 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Sales Forecast by Application (2018-2023)

12.4.2 Global Cosmetic Raw Materials Market Share Forecast by Application (2018-2023)

13 Sales Channel, Distributors, Traders and Dealers

13.1 Sales Channel

13.1.1 Direct Marketing

13.1.2 Indirect Marketing

13.1.3 Marketing Channel Future Trend

13.2 Distributors, Traders and Dealers

14 Research Findings and Conclusion

15 Appendix

15.1 Methodology

15.2 Data Source




Please fill the form below, to recieve the report sample

Name*
Email*
Phone*
Name of the Company*
Title / Designation*
Country*
Your specific requirements*
Human Verification*

Please fill the form below for enquiry

Name*
Email*
Phone*
Name of the Company*
Title / Designation*
Country*
Your specific requirements*
Human Verification*
   Our Clients
  • \


Copyright © 2020 Fior Market Research LLP, All Rights Reserved.